2500 - 2000 BCE
In Pakistan and north westIndia. the mysterious civilization that grew up by the IndusRiver was at its height around 2500 BCE, ACROSS the region, a uniform way of life was created - with shared measures and the same pottery styles.
There is no evidence of kings organized religion in the Indus. However, archaeologists called this imposing statuette the "priest king".
The Indus region was big enough to hold both Mesopotamia and Egypt, but we know very little about it.
Mohenjo - daro
Indus people built the first large planned cities, using standard-sized bricks.Every house had its own water supply, bath, and toilet. This is a view of the ruins of Mohenjo-daro, the most important Indus city, in what is now Pakistan.
In Peru, the Norte Chico civilization continued to flourish, lasting until 1800 BCE. Unusually for an urban civilization, the Norte Chico people did not make pottery. There is also no evidence of art.
In Mesopotamia, King Sargon of the region of Akkad began his conquest of the region of Sumer, creating the world's first empire. As a result. Akkadian, a semitic language, related to Arabic and Hebrew, replaced Sumerian as the language of Mesopotamia.
According to legends, the first kingdom, ruled by the Xia dynasty, appeared in northwest China. It is thought to have been founded along the Yellow River by Yu the Great.
2112 ziggurat of Ur
King Ur-Nammu of Ur(ruled 2112-2095 BCE) made his city the most powerful in Mesopotamia. He also built a great ziggurat temple, dedicated to the moon god Nanna/Sin.
End of the Old Kingdom
Following a period of famine, caused by low Nile floods, the Egyptian Old Kingdom fell apart.
A period of disorder followed, with many rules governing different parts of Egypt.
Mentuhotep II, ruler of Thebes, defeated his rivals and reunited Egypt, beginning the Middle Kingdom, which lasted until 1650 BCE. During this period, the cult of Osiris, god of the dead, become increasingly important.
On the Island of Crete, in the Mediterranean, a people we call the Minoans flourished. They built large palaces, including a paticulary fine example at Knossos. These were also religious and industrial centres, with workshops for metalworkers and other craftsmen. A wall painting from Knossos (left) shows a ritual in which people leap over a bull and perform acrobatic stunts. It is thought that athletes would grasp the bull's horns and then vault over its back.
The Minoans are named after Minos, a legendary king of Crete. we do not know what they called themselves.